- Family name: Rosaceae
- Japanese name: AMONDO (HENTO)
- English name: almond
- Scientific name: Prunus dulcis (Prunus amygdalus, Amygdalus communis, Amygdalus dulcis)
- Country of origin: Central/southwest Asia (northern Syria, Turkey, Caucasus region, Iran, Iraq)
It is a deciduous trees with a height of 6–10 m. Depending on the hardness of the kernel (endocarp), it is classified as hard kernel or soft kernel-type; the soft kernel-type is further classified as a bitter seed variety or sweet seed variety depending on the flavor of the seed (kernel). Leaves are lanceolate and have serrated teeth. The flowers are complete flowers that bloom before the leaves open. Some varieties are self-incompatible and others exhibit other incompatibility between varieties. Bees are mainly involved in pollination. The mesocarp/exocarp is thin and naturally dries and dehisce as it approaches maturity. Fruition can be observed from 3–5 years after planting. It is one of the strongest xerotolerant tree species among fruit trees that can be cultivated in an area with an annual precipitation of approximately 200 mm, but has weak cold tolerance. Has strong heat tolerance, as well. It tends to grow in soil with good drainage, but the indication range of soil is wide ranging, and it can be cultivated even in barren land. It can be grown in soil with pH ranging from 5.3 to 8.3. The age ranges from 20 to 30 years. Propagation is performed by seeding or grafting. For rootstocks, in addition to using bitter seed varieties, other varieties such as peach, plum, apricot, myrobalan, etc. may be used.
The seed contains approximately 22% protein, 57.7% digestible fat (or oil), and 15% carbohydrates. The seeds of the bitter variety contain hydrocyanic acid glycoside (amygdalin) and are not suitable for eating and are used as medicine or rootstock. The gum that can be taken from the trunk is a substitute for tragacanth gum. In Syria and other locations of origin, it is eaten as an immature fruit along with the seeds.
Seed (food), seed oil (food, cosmetics, medicine), gum (medicine, adhesives, dyes), mesocarp/exocarp (animal feed)
Tubeileh, A., Bruggeman A., Turkelboom, F. 2004. Growing Olives and Other
Tree Species in Marinal Dry Environments. Internationl Center for Agricultural
Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.
Wickens, G.E. 1995. Edible nuts. Non-wood forest products 5. Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. (http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/v8929e/v8929e.pdf)
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