- Family name: Oleaceae
- Japanese name: ORIBU
- English name: olive
- Scientific name: Olea europaea
- Country of origin: Unknown (cultivated in coastal areas of Palestine, Syria, and Turkey)
Evergreen tree with height of approximately 15 m. The age can reach more than 1,000 years. There are many self-incompatible varieties with low fertility. In the Arid Land Research Center, it blooms in early June. Generally, olive has amphoteric flowers (complete flowers), but there are also many incomplete flowers with degraded stamen or pistil. It will begin to flower and bear fruit from 10–15 years after planting. When seedlings are transplanted, it bears fruit after 3 to 4 years in the case of early varieties. Has strong xerotolerance and grows in areas with annual precipitation of 150–1,300 mm. Is salt tolerant, heat tolerant, and cold tolerant (−8°C or higher). It can be cultivated even in low nutritive soil, but has weak tolerance against flooding. The optimal soil pH is 7.0–8.0. Propagation is performed by seeding, grafting (splicing, bud grafting), or cutting.
It has been cultivated in Mediterranean coastal areas since approximately 5,000 to 6,000 years ago. The oil content of the fruit is 23 to 33% in the oil type and 10 to 18% in the pickling type. The fruit oil contains mainly oleic acid (60-77%) and linoleic acid (9-23%). The leaves contain oleorepin, oleandol, and rhein. From ancient times, the leaves have been regarded as a symbol of peace, blessing, luck, fertility, and victory. In Japan, oil is mainly used, but pickled fruits are important products in the Mediterranean coastal area, and there are also specialty shops.
Fruit (food, oil), fruit oil (food, medicine, cosmetics, soap, hair styling material, hair tonic, industrial use), seed (oil), trunk (eating utensils, furniture), leaf (medicine)
Barakat, H. and Aziz, I. A. 2010. Guide to Plants of Ancient Egypt. Bibliotheca
Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt.
Tubeileh, A., Bruggeman A., Turkelboom, F. 2004. Growing Olives and Other Tree Species in Marinal Dry Environments. Internationl Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.
五井正憲・塚本洋太郎．1994．オレア属．塚本洋太郎（監修）．園芸植物大事典 1．pp.435-436. 小学館、東京．
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